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# What is network management?

## Introduction

Many are familiar with the idea that much of decision-making and service delivery takes place in networks of interdependent actors. In the last 15 years in particular, there has been an increase in network research, both qualitative and qualitative, empirically testing the various specific network management.

In general, some topics are subject to network monitoring. A wide range of research, mainly related to social network theories, focuses on network characteristics operated at communication frequencies or other relevant characteristics. Some of this research is also related to network performance (eg Lewis, 2011). Much of the research on networks focuses on network performance (Provan and Milward, 2001; Sandstrom and Carlsson, 2008; Meier and O’Toole, 2007). In addition, part of the literature analyzes other characteristics of the network, such as trust, in terms of network performance (Klijn, Edelenbos and Steijn, 2010; Willem and Lucidarme, 2014; Markovic, 2017).

## Network management: crucial in theory and practice

Another very prominent research topic, however, is the use of network management strategies to foster collaboration and results in networks (Klijn, Steijn and Edelenbos, 2010; McGuire and Agranoff, 2011; Markovic, 2017). Network and the collaborative process in networks (Klijn et al. 2010; Ysa, Sierra and Esteve, 2014; Van Meerkerk, Edelenbos and Klijn, 2015). Furthermore, case studies and practical experience have shown that network management is essential to achieve adequate and effective solutions (Mandell, 2001; Williams, 2012).

Therefore, since network management systems are important to ensure network performance and network connectivity, it is important to identify factors that affect the implementation of network management policies.Public sector executives and leaders, as well as academics, need to know what contextual conditions require specific management strategies. However, relatively few investigations have analyzed network management as a dependent variable or attempted to assess the important conditions that affect the specific types of network management strategies implemented in governance networks.

There are obviously some exceptions. Some publications pay attention to the personal characteristics of network administrators when explaining the level and

nature of network administration. This has been confirmed by Edelenbos, Klijn and Steijn (2011), who, in a research survey of environmental projects, found that more experienced network managers use a greater variety of strategies and manage more intensively and therefore are more successful. .

However, there may be other important conditions related to the specific characteristics of the governance network that influence the choice and use of network management strategies

## Types of web management strategies

Business management of complex network management functions is commonly referred to as ‘network management’ but is also referred to as ‘network management’, ‘management collaboration’ or ‘meta-administration’ (O’Toole, 1988; Mandell, 2001; Sørensen & Torfing, 2007 ). The literature cites various web management strategies for guiding and designing interaction methods, so it is difficult to provide a complete list here (see Gage & Mandell, 1990; O’Toole, 1988; Agranoff & McGuire, 2003). Table 1 provides a summary (albeit incomplete) of the identified strategies, providing examples of each of the components (see Klijn et al., 2010). We will now briefly discuss the different types of web management strategies.

## Factors influencing network management strategies

The most important characteristics often mentioned in the literature are the rankings of the management network (Klijn and Koppenjan, 2016; O’Toole, 1988; Agranoff and McGuire, 2003). Although networks are defined by interdependence and direct communication, a certain degree remains: some actors are equal to others due to their abundance or scarcity of resources. In this regard, Provan and Kenis (2008) differentiate between voluntary or participatory networks and networks led or controlled by leading organizations. Volunteer networks are created from the bottom up to professionals and organizations that will participate in the network, while networks are created with a policy responsible, for example, a government agency: ‘Leadership of the organization, at all major network levels activities and important decisions It is coordinated and participated by a member, serving as the leader of the organization. Thus, network management becomes increasingly central to negotiation, with unequal power. ”(Provan and Kenis, 2008, p. 235). Mandell (1990) also argues that (strategy) management Compulsory networking is different from managing a voluntary network.Cust compulsive network has a higher rank than a voluntary network, which is also unique in that it relates to different types of network management.In addition, Rodríguez, Langley, Béland and Denis (2007, p. 153) argue that “it is necessary to organize a variety of management methods in order to achieve effective collaboration in a compelling situation.” However, the literature does not much quieter on how exactly the hierarchy will particularly affect network management strategies.